Dejan Milatovic, Ramesh C. Gupta, Zhaobao Yin, Snjezana Zaja-Milatovic, Mirjana Milosevic Brockett, Michael Aschner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Despite its essentiality, manganese (Mn) is a common environmental contaminant, which can cause toxic effects in humans. Mn exposure may start before birth from the maternal exposure through inhalation and ingestion of food items from the environmental pollution. Postnatal exposure can also be relevant due to a relative high concentration of Mn in formulas and continued exposure during childhood and adulthood from both environmental and occupational exposures. Although its accumulation is also associated with reproductive effects, Mn is generally described as neurotoxicant selectively affecting the basal ganglia. Mn-induced neurotoxicity leads to a degenerative brain disorder, referred to as manganism. It is characterized by clinical signs and morphological lesions similar to those seen in Parkinson’s disease. Cumulative mechanisms of Mn action are not sufficiently known and may vary with environmental factors and individual susceptibilities, including single nucleotide polymorphisms that may alter Mn homeostasis, transport, and metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationReproductive and Developmental Toxicology
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9780323897730
ISBN (Print)9780323915601
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • F2-isoprostanes
  • Manganese
  • Manganism
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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