Every year, about 1 million people living with HIV worldwide develop tuberculosis. Although the drug regimens used to treat tuberculosis in these patients are the same as those used in HIV-negative patients, cotreatment of tuberculosis with antiretroviral therapy involves challenges including the optimal timing of antiretroviral initiation, drug-drug interactions, drug tolerability, and the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. Furthermore, mortality is high in people with HIV who are diagnosed with tuberculosis during a hospital admission, and in those with tuberculous meningitis. Studies in this field have better characterised these challenges and informed optimal management and guideline revisions. In patients with tuberculosis, antiretroviral therapy improves survival, is well tolerated, and can be adjusted to manage drug-drug interactions with rifampicin. Prednisone is effective in both preventing and treating the paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases