Magnetic resonance imaging of brain function and neurochemistry

Kamil Ugurbil, Dae Shik Kim, Tim Duong, Xiaoping Hu, Seiji Ogawa, Rolf Gruetter, Wei Chen, Seong G.I. Kim, Xiao Hung Ess A. Yacoub, Pierre François Van De Moortele, Amir Shmuel, Josef Pfeuffer, Hellmut Merkle, Peter Andersen, Gregor Adriany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research has been focused on the acquisition of physiological and biochemical information noninvasively. Probably the most notable accomplishment in this general effort has been the introduction of the MR approaches to map brain function. This capability, often referred to as functional magnetic resonance imaging. orfMRI, is based on the sensitivity of MR signals to secondary metabolic and hemodynamic responses tliaî accompany increased neuronal activity. Despite this indirect link to neurotransmission, recent studies demonstrate that under appropriate conditions, these jMRl maps have accuracy at the scale of submillimeter neuronal organizations such as the orientation columns of the visual cortex, and are directly proportional in magnitude to electrical signals generated by the neurons. High magnetic fields have been critical in achieving such specificity in functional maps because they provide advantages through increased signal-to-noise ratio, diminishing blood-related contributions to mapping signals, and enhanced sensitivity to microvasculature. Equally important is MR spectroscopy studies, which, at high magnetic fields, provide for the first time the opportunity to measure local metabolic correlates of human brain function and neurotransmission rates. Together, these MR methods provide a complementary set of approaches for probing important aspects of the nervous system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1093-1106
Number of pages14
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Volume89
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • BOLD
  • Cerebral blood flow
  • Cerebral oxygénation
  • Cortex
  • fMRI
  • Functional imaging
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Orientation columns
  • Oxygen consumption
  • Spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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