Macrophage autophagy limits acute toxic liver injury in mice through down regulation of interleukin-1β

Ghulam Ilyas, Enpeng Zhao, Kun Liu, Yu Lin, Lydia Tesfa, Kathryn E. Tanaka, Mark J. Czaja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background & Aims: Overactivation of the innate immune response underlies many forms of liver injury including that caused by hepatotoxins. Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophage autophagy regulates innate immunity and resultant tissue inflammation. Although hepatocyte autophagy has been shown to modulate hepatic injury, little is known about the role of autophagy in hepatic macrophages during the inflammatory response to acute toxic liver injury. Our aim therefore was to determine whether macrophage autophagy functions to down regulate hepatic inflammation. Methods: Mice with a LysM-CRE-mediated macrophage knockout of the autophagy gene ATG5 were examined for their response to toxin-induced liver injury from D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS). Results: Knockout mice had increased liver injury from GalN/LPS as determined by significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, histological evidence of liver injury, positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, caspase activation and mortality as compared to littermate controls. Levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-6 hepatic mRNA and serum protein were unchanged, but serum IL-1β was significantly increased in knockout mice. The increase in serum IL-1β was secondary to elevated hepatic caspase 1 activation and inflammasome-mediated cleavage of pro-IL-1β to its active form. Cultured hepatic macrophages from GalN/LPS-treated knockout mice had similarly increased IL-1β production. Dysregulation of IL-1β was the mechanism of increased liver injury as an IL-1 receptor antagonist prevented injury in knockout mice in concert with decreased neutrophil activation. Conclusions: Macrophage autophagy functions to limit acute toxin-induced liver injury and death by inhibiting the generation of inflammasome-dependent IL-1β.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Hepatology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 30 2015

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Poisons
Autophagy
Interleukin-1
Down-Regulation
Macrophages
Liver
Wounds and Injuries
Knockout Mice
Galactosamine
Inflammasomes
Lipopolysaccharides
Innate Immunity
Serum
Inflammation
Caspase 1
Neutrophil Activation
Gene Knockout Techniques
Interleukin-1 Receptors
Caspases
Transferases

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Galactosamine
  • Inflammasome
  • Innate immunity
  • Kupffer cell
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Macrophage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

Macrophage autophagy limits acute toxic liver injury in mice through down regulation of interleukin-1β. / Ilyas, Ghulam; Zhao, Enpeng; Liu, Kun; Lin, Yu; Tesfa, Lydia; Tanaka, Kathryn E.; Czaja, Mark J.

In: Journal of Hepatology, 30.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ilyas, Ghulam ; Zhao, Enpeng ; Liu, Kun ; Lin, Yu ; Tesfa, Lydia ; Tanaka, Kathryn E. ; Czaja, Mark J. / Macrophage autophagy limits acute toxic liver injury in mice through down regulation of interleukin-1β. In: Journal of Hepatology. 2015.
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AU - Tesfa, Lydia

AU - Tanaka, Kathryn E.

AU - Czaja, Mark J.

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N2 - Background & Aims: Overactivation of the innate immune response underlies many forms of liver injury including that caused by hepatotoxins. Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophage autophagy regulates innate immunity and resultant tissue inflammation. Although hepatocyte autophagy has been shown to modulate hepatic injury, little is known about the role of autophagy in hepatic macrophages during the inflammatory response to acute toxic liver injury. Our aim therefore was to determine whether macrophage autophagy functions to down regulate hepatic inflammation. Methods: Mice with a LysM-CRE-mediated macrophage knockout of the autophagy gene ATG5 were examined for their response to toxin-induced liver injury from D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS). Results: Knockout mice had increased liver injury from GalN/LPS as determined by significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, histological evidence of liver injury, positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, caspase activation and mortality as compared to littermate controls. Levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-6 hepatic mRNA and serum protein were unchanged, but serum IL-1β was significantly increased in knockout mice. The increase in serum IL-1β was secondary to elevated hepatic caspase 1 activation and inflammasome-mediated cleavage of pro-IL-1β to its active form. Cultured hepatic macrophages from GalN/LPS-treated knockout mice had similarly increased IL-1β production. Dysregulation of IL-1β was the mechanism of increased liver injury as an IL-1 receptor antagonist prevented injury in knockout mice in concert with decreased neutrophil activation. Conclusions: Macrophage autophagy functions to limit acute toxin-induced liver injury and death by inhibiting the generation of inflammasome-dependent IL-1β.

AB - Background & Aims: Overactivation of the innate immune response underlies many forms of liver injury including that caused by hepatotoxins. Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophage autophagy regulates innate immunity and resultant tissue inflammation. Although hepatocyte autophagy has been shown to modulate hepatic injury, little is known about the role of autophagy in hepatic macrophages during the inflammatory response to acute toxic liver injury. Our aim therefore was to determine whether macrophage autophagy functions to down regulate hepatic inflammation. Methods: Mice with a LysM-CRE-mediated macrophage knockout of the autophagy gene ATG5 were examined for their response to toxin-induced liver injury from D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS). Results: Knockout mice had increased liver injury from GalN/LPS as determined by significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, histological evidence of liver injury, positive terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, caspase activation and mortality as compared to littermate controls. Levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-6 hepatic mRNA and serum protein were unchanged, but serum IL-1β was significantly increased in knockout mice. The increase in serum IL-1β was secondary to elevated hepatic caspase 1 activation and inflammasome-mediated cleavage of pro-IL-1β to its active form. Cultured hepatic macrophages from GalN/LPS-treated knockout mice had similarly increased IL-1β production. Dysregulation of IL-1β was the mechanism of increased liver injury as an IL-1 receptor antagonist prevented injury in knockout mice in concert with decreased neutrophil activation. Conclusions: Macrophage autophagy functions to limit acute toxin-induced liver injury and death by inhibiting the generation of inflammasome-dependent IL-1β.

KW - Apoptosis

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KW - Kupffer cell

KW - Lipopolysaccharide

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