In a community-based study of 4,309 children with neurodevelopmental disabilities who were referred to the Institute for Child Development, Tel Aviv, Israel, 62 (1.4%) had macrocephaly (head circumference above the ninety-eighth percentile for age), of whom 42 (1%) had macrocephaly not associated with hydrocephalus. With the exception of neonatal respiratory distress the incidence of perinatal complications was not different from that in other children referred to the Institute for Child Development. In children with developmental disabilities, macrocephaly was a significant risk factor for febrile seizures (odds ratio = 3.1, P < 0.001) and epilepsy (odds ratio = 7.7, P < 0.001), but not for mental retardation (odds ratio = 1.1, P = 0.78) or cerebral palsy (odds ratio = 1.3, P = 0.67). Children with macrocephaly had a high rate of comorbid diagnosis. We conclude that in children with developmental disabilities the presence of macrocephaly even when not associated with hydrocephalus is associated with an increased risk of seizures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Clinical Neurology