Lyme carditis

An important cause of reversible heart block

H. F. McAlister, P. T. Klementowicz, Carolyn A. Andrews, John Devens Fisher, M. Feld, S. Furman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

180 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lyme disease is a tick-borne spirochetal infection, characterized by erythema chronicum migrans and an acute systemic illness. The disease is endemic in many parts of the north-eastern United States. Without treatment, late rheumatic, neurologic, and cardiac complications frequently occur. We report four serologically confirmed cases of Lyme carditis in previously healthy young men (mean age, 45 years) from endemic areas. Each presented with severe symptomatic atrioventricular block, three with episodes of prolonged ventricular asystole. Two had permanent pacemakers implanted (one was later removed), and another, very nearly did, before diagnosis. All four patients were treated with antibiotics, and in each case their rhythm returned to sinus, though one patient has Wenckebach second degree block with atrial pacing at 120 beats/min 16 months later. Carditis occurs in 4% to 10% of cases of Lyme disease and usually begins 3 to 6 weeks after the initial illness. It manifests as a transient myocarditis with varying degrees of atrioventricular block. The diagnosis is made primarily on clinical grounds and confirmed by serologic testing. Temporary cardiac pacing is frequently needed by patients who have severe heart block with hemodynamic instability. The evidence suggests that, in most cases, the block is at the level of the atrioventricular node. The block generally resolves completely with antibiotic treatment. Complete heart block persists more than 1 week and the long-term prognosis appears to be excellent. Consideration and prompt recognition of this potentially lethal, but reversible, cause of heart block is crucial in order to avoid inappropriate permanent pacemaker implantation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)339-345
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Internal Medicine
Volume110
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1989

Fingerprint

Heart Block
Myocarditis
Lyme Disease
Atrioventricular Block
Erythema Chronicum Migrans
Tick-Borne Diseases
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Endemic Diseases
Atrioventricular Node
Heart Arrest
Nervous System
Hemodynamics
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

McAlister, H. F., Klementowicz, P. T., Andrews, C. A., Fisher, J. D., Feld, M., & Furman, S. (1989). Lyme carditis: An important cause of reversible heart block. Annals of Internal Medicine, 110(5), 339-345.

Lyme carditis : An important cause of reversible heart block. / McAlister, H. F.; Klementowicz, P. T.; Andrews, Carolyn A.; Fisher, John Devens; Feld, M.; Furman, S.

In: Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 110, No. 5, 1989, p. 339-345.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McAlister, HF, Klementowicz, PT, Andrews, CA, Fisher, JD, Feld, M & Furman, S 1989, 'Lyme carditis: An important cause of reversible heart block', Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 339-345.
McAlister HF, Klementowicz PT, Andrews CA, Fisher JD, Feld M, Furman S. Lyme carditis: An important cause of reversible heart block. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989;110(5):339-345.
McAlister, H. F. ; Klementowicz, P. T. ; Andrews, Carolyn A. ; Fisher, John Devens ; Feld, M. ; Furman, S. / Lyme carditis : An important cause of reversible heart block. In: Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989 ; Vol. 110, No. 5. pp. 339-345.
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