Longitudinal study of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster

Amy Berninger, Mayris P. Webber, Justin K. Niles, Jackson Gustave, Roy Lee, Hillel W. Cohen, Kerry Kelly, Malachy Corrigan, David J. Prezant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported even years after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11).Methods: We used screening tools to assess the prevalence of probable PTSD in 9/11-exposed firefighters at two time points, within 6 months of 9/11 (baseline) and 3-4 years post-disaster (follow-up).Results: Five thousand six hundred fifty-six individuals completed assessments at both times. 15.5% reported probable PTSD post-9/11, 8.6% at baseline and 11.1% at follow-up, on average 2.9 (SD 0.5) years later. Analyses revealed that nearly half of all probable PTSD occurred as delayed onset (absent baseline, present follow-up). Compared with the resilient group (no probable PTSD at either time), probable PTSD at baseline, and delayed onset at follow-up were each associated with concomitant functional impairment (OR 19.5 and 18.9), respectively.Conclusion: Similar percentages of firefighters met criteria for baseline and delayed onset probable PTSD at follow-up, years later. Both were associated with substantial functional impairment. Early risk identification could provide opportunities for mental health interventions before symptoms compromise work and social relationships.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1177-1185
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume53
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2010

Fingerprint

Firefighters
Disasters
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Longitudinal Studies
September 11 Terrorist Attacks
Mental Health

Keywords

  • Firefighters
  • Mental health
  • Occupational medicine
  • Post-traumatic stress
  • World Trade Center

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Longitudinal study of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster. / Berninger, Amy; Webber, Mayris P.; Niles, Justin K.; Gustave, Jackson; Lee, Roy; Cohen, Hillel W.; Kelly, Kerry; Corrigan, Malachy; Prezant, David J.

In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 53, No. 12, 12.2010, p. 1177-1185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Berninger, Amy ; Webber, Mayris P. ; Niles, Justin K. ; Gustave, Jackson ; Lee, Roy ; Cohen, Hillel W. ; Kelly, Kerry ; Corrigan, Malachy ; Prezant, David J. / Longitudinal study of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster. In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2010 ; Vol. 53, No. 12. pp. 1177-1185.
@article{8a4be24ed6fa434c9f030b18efe362fa,
title = "Longitudinal study of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster",
abstract = "Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported even years after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11).Methods: We used screening tools to assess the prevalence of probable PTSD in 9/11-exposed firefighters at two time points, within 6 months of 9/11 (baseline) and 3-4 years post-disaster (follow-up).Results: Five thousand six hundred fifty-six individuals completed assessments at both times. 15.5{\%} reported probable PTSD post-9/11, 8.6{\%} at baseline and 11.1{\%} at follow-up, on average 2.9 (SD 0.5) years later. Analyses revealed that nearly half of all probable PTSD occurred as delayed onset (absent baseline, present follow-up). Compared with the resilient group (no probable PTSD at either time), probable PTSD at baseline, and delayed onset at follow-up were each associated with concomitant functional impairment (OR 19.5 and 18.9), respectively.Conclusion: Similar percentages of firefighters met criteria for baseline and delayed onset probable PTSD at follow-up, years later. Both were associated with substantial functional impairment. Early risk identification could provide opportunities for mental health interventions before symptoms compromise work and social relationships.",
keywords = "Firefighters, Mental health, Occupational medicine, Post-traumatic stress, World Trade Center",
author = "Amy Berninger and Webber, {Mayris P.} and Niles, {Justin K.} and Jackson Gustave and Roy Lee and Cohen, {Hillel W.} and Kerry Kelly and Malachy Corrigan and Prezant, {David J.}",
year = "2010",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1002/ajim.20894",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "53",
pages = "1177--1185",
journal = "American Journal of Industrial Medicine",
issn = "0271-3586",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Longitudinal study of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster

AU - Berninger, Amy

AU - Webber, Mayris P.

AU - Niles, Justin K.

AU - Gustave, Jackson

AU - Lee, Roy

AU - Cohen, Hillel W.

AU - Kelly, Kerry

AU - Corrigan, Malachy

AU - Prezant, David J.

PY - 2010/12

Y1 - 2010/12

N2 - Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported even years after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11).Methods: We used screening tools to assess the prevalence of probable PTSD in 9/11-exposed firefighters at two time points, within 6 months of 9/11 (baseline) and 3-4 years post-disaster (follow-up).Results: Five thousand six hundred fifty-six individuals completed assessments at both times. 15.5% reported probable PTSD post-9/11, 8.6% at baseline and 11.1% at follow-up, on average 2.9 (SD 0.5) years later. Analyses revealed that nearly half of all probable PTSD occurred as delayed onset (absent baseline, present follow-up). Compared with the resilient group (no probable PTSD at either time), probable PTSD at baseline, and delayed onset at follow-up were each associated with concomitant functional impairment (OR 19.5 and 18.9), respectively.Conclusion: Similar percentages of firefighters met criteria for baseline and delayed onset probable PTSD at follow-up, years later. Both were associated with substantial functional impairment. Early risk identification could provide opportunities for mental health interventions before symptoms compromise work and social relationships.

AB - Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported even years after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11).Methods: We used screening tools to assess the prevalence of probable PTSD in 9/11-exposed firefighters at two time points, within 6 months of 9/11 (baseline) and 3-4 years post-disaster (follow-up).Results: Five thousand six hundred fifty-six individuals completed assessments at both times. 15.5% reported probable PTSD post-9/11, 8.6% at baseline and 11.1% at follow-up, on average 2.9 (SD 0.5) years later. Analyses revealed that nearly half of all probable PTSD occurred as delayed onset (absent baseline, present follow-up). Compared with the resilient group (no probable PTSD at either time), probable PTSD at baseline, and delayed onset at follow-up were each associated with concomitant functional impairment (OR 19.5 and 18.9), respectively.Conclusion: Similar percentages of firefighters met criteria for baseline and delayed onset probable PTSD at follow-up, years later. Both were associated with substantial functional impairment. Early risk identification could provide opportunities for mental health interventions before symptoms compromise work and social relationships.

KW - Firefighters

KW - Mental health

KW - Occupational medicine

KW - Post-traumatic stress

KW - World Trade Center

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78649598848&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78649598848&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/ajim.20894

DO - 10.1002/ajim.20894

M3 - Article

C2 - 20862700

AN - SCOPUS:78649598848

VL - 53

SP - 1177

EP - 1185

JO - American Journal of Industrial Medicine

JF - American Journal of Industrial Medicine

SN - 0271-3586

IS - 12

ER -