Purpose: Recent initial findings suggest that radiation therapy improves blood perfusion and cellular chemotherapy uptake in mice with leukemia. However, the ability of radiation therapy to influence drug accumulation in the extracellular bone marrow tissue is unknown, due in part to a lack of methodology. This study developed longitudinal quantitative multiphoton microscopy (L-QMPM) to characterize the bone marrow vasculature (BMV) and drug accumulation in the extracellular bone marrow tissue before and after radiation therapy in mice bearing leukemia. Methods and Materials: We developed a longitudinal window implant for L-QMPM imaging of the calvarium BMV before, 2 days after, and 5 days after total body irradiation (TBI). Live time-lapsed images of a fluorescent drug surrogate were used to obtain measurements, including tissue wash-in slope (WIStissue) to measure extracellular drug accumulation. We performed L-QMPM imaging on healthy C57BL/6 (WT) mice, as well as mice bearing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Results: Implants had no effects on calvarium dose, and parameters for wild-type untreated mice were stable during imaging. We observed decreased vessel diameter, vessel blood flow, and WIStissue with the onset of AML and ALL. Two to 10 Gy TBI increased WIStissue and vessel diameter 2 days after radiation therapy in all 3 groups of mice and increased single-vessel blood flow in mice bearing ALL and AML. Increased WIStissue was observed 5 days after 10 Gy TBI or 4 Gy split-dose TBI (2 treatments of 2 Gy spaced 3 days apart). Conclusions: L-QMPM provides stable functional assessments of the BMV. Nonmyeloablative and myeloablative TBI increases extracellular drug accumulation in the leukemic bone marrow 2 to 5 days posttreatment, likely through improved blood perfusion and drug exchange from the BMV to the extravascular tissue. Our data show that neo-adjuvant TBI at doses from 2 Gy to 10 Gy conditions the BMV to improve drug transport to the bone marrow.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2021|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research