Long-lasting changes of brain function in response to experience rely on diverse forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Chief among them are long-term potentiation and long-term depression of neurotransmitter release, which are widely expressed by excitatory and inhibitory synapses throughout the central nervous system and can dynamically regulate information flow in neural circuits. This review article explores recent advances in presynaptic long-term plasticity mechanisms and contributions to circuit function. Growing evidence indicates that presynaptic plasticity may involve structural changes, presynaptic protein synthesis, and transsynaptic signaling. Presynaptic long-term plasticity can alter the short-term dynamics of neurotransmitter release, thereby contributing to circuit computations such as novelty detection, modifications of the excitatory/inhibitory balance, and sensory adaptation. In addition, presynaptic long-term plasticity underlies forms of learning and its dysregulation participates in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, intellectual disabilities, neurodegenerative diseases, and drug abuse.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||24|
|Journal||Annual Review of Neuroscience|
|State||Published - Jul 8 2018|
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