Experience-dependent modifications of neural circuits and function are believed to heavily depend on changes in synaptic efficacy such as LTP/LTD. Hence, much effort has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms underlying these forms of synaptic plasticity. Although most of this work has focused on excitatory synapses, it is now clear that diverse mechanisms of long-term inhibitory plasticity have evolved to provide additional flexibility to neural circuits. By changing the excitatory/inhibitory balance, GABAergic plasticity can regulate excitability, neural circuit function and ultimately, contribute to learning and memory, and neural circuit refinement. Here we discuss recent advancements in our understanding of the mechanisms and functional relevance of GABAergic inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
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