Long-term outcomes of all patients who underwent nonthoracotomy implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation at our institution from April 1991 to October 1994 were studied using the intention-to-treat analysis. Of 94 consecutive patients, 81 underwent nonthoracotomy ICD implantation and 13 underwent thoracotomy (for concomitant surgery in 11 and unavailability of nonthoracolomy leads in 2). Six of 81 patients had a high defibrillation threshold, 4 subsequently underwent thoracotomy, and 2 were treated with amiodarone. Surgical mortality was 0%. The duration of follow-up was 20 ± 13 months, and was >12 months in 74% of 67 living patients. Actuarial survival rates at 1 and 2 years were, respectively, 98% and 94% for sudden death and 91% and 83% for total mortality. Deaths during long-term follow-up were mostly due to nonsudden cardiac or noncardiac deaths. Two-year mortality rates were 12% and 25% in patients with ejection fraction ≥30% and <30%, respectively. Thus, instances of sudden death and surgical mortality are very few in patients with nonthoracotomy ICDs. Deaths during long-term follow-up are mostly due to nonsudden cardiac and noncardiac deaths. Therefore, ICD therapy may have greater impact on survival in patients with lower risks of nonsudden cardiac and cardiac death (e.g., younger patients with minimal heart disease) than in patients with severe cardiac or noncardiac disease. Prospective studies are needed to address this question.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine