Prostate adenocarcinoma, treated with localized tumor hyperthermia (LTH), can potentially serve as a source of tumor antigen, where dying apoptotic/necrotic cells release tumor peptides slowly over time. In addition, LTH-treated cells can release heat shock proteins that can chaperone antigenic peptides to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells. We attempted to discern whether sequential LTH and intratumoral dendritic cell and/or systemic granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) would activate antitumor immune response in a syngeneic murine model of prostate cancer (RM-1). Palpable RM-1 tumors, grown in the distal appendage of C57BL/6 male mice, were subjected to LTH (43.7°C for 1 h) x 2, separated by 5 days. Following the second LTH treatment, animals received either PBS or dendritic cells (2 × 106) intratumorally (every 3 days for three injections). Separate cohorts also received i.v. injection of recombinant adenovirus-expressing murine GM-CSF (AdGMCSF), 1 day after LTH. Control animals received AdenoLacZ or AdenoGFP. Intratumoral dendritic cell injection induced tumor-specific T-helper cell activity (IFNγ ELISPOTS) and CTL activity, which was further augmented by AdGMCSF, indicating amplification of tumor-specific TH1 immunity. The combination of LTH, AdGMCSF, and intratumoral dendritic cell injection resulted in significant tumor growth delays when compared with animal cohorts that received LTH alone. These results support an in situ autovaccination strategy where systemic administration of GM-CSF and/or intratumoral injection of autologous dendritic cells, when combined with LTH, could be an effective treatment for local and systemic recurrence of prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research