Background: Electrical neuromodulation via direct electrical stimulation (DES) is an increasingly common therapy for a wide variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Unfortunately, therapeutic efficacy is inconsistent, likely due to our limited understanding of the relationship between the massive stimulation parameter space and brain tissue responses. Objective: To better understand how different parameters induce varied neural responses, we systematically examined single pulse-induced cortico-cortico evoked potentials (CCEP) as a function of stimulation amplitude, duration, brain region, and whether grey or white matter was stimulated. Methods: We measured voltage peak amplitudes and area under the curve (AUC) of intracranially recorded stimulation responses as a function of distance from the stimulation site, pulse width, current injected, location relative to grey and white matter, and brain region stimulated (N = 52, n = 719 stimulation sites). Results: Increasing stimulation pulse width increased responses near the stimulation location. Increasing stimulation amplitude (current) increased both evoked amplitudes and AUC nonlinearly. Locally (<15 mm), stimulation at the boundary between grey and white matter induced larger responses. In contrast, for distant sites (>15 mm), white matter stimulation consistently produced larger responses than stimulation in or near grey matter. The stimulation location-response curves followed different trends for cingulate, lateral frontal, and lateral temporal cortical stimulation. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a stronger local response may require stimulation in the grey-white boundary while stimulation in the white matter could be needed for network activation. Thus, stimulation parameters tailored for a specific anatomical-functional outcome may be key to advancing neuromodulatory therapy.
- Single pulse electrical stimulation
- White matter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology