Lead, Arsenic, and Manganese Metal Mixture Exposures: Focus on Biomarkers of Effect

V. M. Andrade, M. L. Mateus, M. C. Batoréu, M. Aschner, A. P. Marreilha dos Santos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


The increasing exposure of human populations to excessive levels of metals continues to represent a matter of public health concern. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed for the detection of adverse health effects induced by lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and manganese (Mn); however, these studies have relied on exposures to each single metal, which fails to replicate real-life exposure scenarios. These three metals are commonly detected in different environmental, occupational, and food contexts and they share common neurotoxic effects, which are progressive and once clinically apparent may be irreversible. Thus, chronic exposure to low levels of a mixture of these metals may represent an additive risk of toxicity. Building upon their shared mechanisms of toxicity, such as oxidative stress, interference with neurotransmitters, and effects on the hematopoietic system, we address putative biomarkers, which may assist in assessing the onset of neurological diseases associated with exposure to this metal mixture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-23
Number of pages11
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 17 2015


  • Arsenic
  • Biomarkers
  • Lead
  • Manganese
  • Metal mixtures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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