Kidney stone formation and the gut microbiome are altered by antibiotics in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats

Joshua M. Stern, Robert D. Burk, John Asplin, Nancy S. Krieger, Sylvia O. Suadicani, Yi Wang, Mykhaylo Usyk, Justin A. Lee, Luojing Chen, Jennifer Becker, Michaela Chan, David A. Bushinsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Antibiotics can alter the gut microbiome (GMB), which may be associated with stone disease. We sought to determine the effect that antibiotics have on the GMB, urine ion excretion and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. 116th generation GHS rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) and phosphate (0.65%) diet, and divided into three groups (n = 10): control (CTL) diet, or supplemented with ciprofloxacin (Cipro, 5 mg/day) or Bactrim (250 mg/day). Urine and fecal pellets were collected over 6, 12 and 18 weeks. Fecal DNA was amplified across the 16S rRNA V4 region. At 18 weeks, kidney stone formation was visualized by Faxitron and blindly assessed by three investigators. After 18 weeks, urine calcium and oxalate decreased with Bactrim compared to CTL and Cipro. Urine pH increased with Bactrim compared to CTL and Cipro. Urine citrate increased with Cipro compared to CTL and decreased by half with Bactrim. Calcification increased with Bactrim compared to CTL and Cipro. Increased microbial diversity correlated with decreased urinary oxalate in all animals (R = − 0.46, p = 0.006). A potential microbial network emerged as significantly associated with shifts in urinary pH. Bactrim and Cipro differentially altered the GMB of GHS rats. The Bactrim group experienced a decrease in urine calcium, increased CaP supersaturation and increased calcification. The GMB is likely a contributing factor to changes in urine chemistry, supersaturation and stone risk. Further investigation is required to fully understand the association between antibiotics, the GMB and kidney stone formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUrolithiasis
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Antibiotics
  • Gut microbiome
  • Kidney stone
  • Urinary stone disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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