The isotype and epitope specificities of antibodies both contribute to the efficacy of antibodies that mediate immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans, but the relationship between these properties is only partially understood. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of protection of two sets of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype switch variants from two IgG3 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which are either not protective or disease enhancing, depending on the mouse model used. The two IgG3 MAbs 3E5 and 4H3 have different epitope specificities. Protection experiments were done with A/JCr mice infected intravenously with C. neoformans and administered with 3E5 IgG3 and its IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b switch variants. These experiments revealed that IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG2a were each more effective than IgG3. For 4H3 IgG3 and its IgG1 and IgG2b switch variants, the relative efficacy was IgG2b > IgG1 > > IgG3. The combination of 3E5 IgG3 and 4H3 IgG3 was more deleterious than either IgG3 alone. All IgG isotypes were opsonic for mouse bronchoalveolar cells, with the relative efficacy being IgG2b > IgG2a > IgG1 > IgG3. These results (i) confirm that a nonprotective IgG3 MAb can be converted to a protective MAb by isotype switching, (ii) indicate that the efficacy of protection of an IgG1 MAb can be increased by isotype switching to another subclass, (iii) show that protective and nonprotective IgG MAbs are opsonic, and (iv) provide additional evidence for the concept that the efficacy of the antibody response to C. neoformans is dependent on the type of MAb elicited.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases