Lipid peroxidation results in generation of a variety of lipid hydroperoxides and other highly reactive species that covalently modify proteins, nucleic acids, and other lipids, thus resulting in lipotoxicity. Although biological relevance of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) is well studied, the existing data on the role of isolevuglandins (isoLGs) in pathology are insufficient. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to review the existing data on biological effects of isoLG and isoLG adducts and their role in multiple diseases. Sixty four highly reactive levuglandin-like γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA, or isoketals, IsoK, or isolevuglandins, IsoLG) regio- and stereo-isomers are formed as products of arachidonic acid oxidation. IsoLGs react covalently with lysyl residues of proteins to form a stable adduct and intramolecular aminal, bispyrrole, and trispyrrole cross-links. Phosphatidylethanolamine was also shown to be the target for isoLG binding as compared to proteins and DNA. Free IsoLGs are not detectable in vivo, although isolevuglandin adduction to amino acid residues of particular proteins may be evaluated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Adducts formed were shown to play a significant role in the development and maintenance of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. These, and more specific molecular pathways, link isoLG and isoLG-adduct formation to develop a variety of pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure), obesity and diabetes, cancer, neurodegeneration, eye diseases (retinal degeneration and glaucoma), as well as ageing. Hypothetically, isoLGs and isoLG adduct formation may be considered as the potential target for treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2020|
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)