Transient forebrain or global ischemia induces delayed neuronal death in vulnerable CA1 pyramidal cells with many features of apoptosis. A brief period of ischemia, i.e., ischemic preconditioning, affords robust protection of CA1 neurons against a subsequent more prolonged ischemic challenge. Here we show that preconditioning acts via PI3K/Akt signaling to block the ischemia-induced cascade involving mitochondrial translocation of Bad, assembly of Bad with Bcl-xL, cleavage of Bcl-xL to form its prodeath fragment, ΔN-Bcl-xL, activation of large-conductance channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low pI), caspase activation, and neuronal death. These findings show how preconditioning acts to prevent the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria and to preserve the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. The specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 administered in vivo 1 h before or immediately after ischemia or up to 120 h later significantly reverses preconditioning-induced protection, indicating a requirement for sustained PI3K signaling in ischemic tolerance. These findings implicate PI3K/Akt signaling in maintenance of the integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Mar 25 2008|
- Ischemic tolerance
- Postischemic neurodegeneration
ASJC Scopus subject areas