Endoscopie sinus surgery (ESS) is one of the most commonly performed procedures in otorhinolaryngology and is associated with a definite risk for both intraoperative and postoperative complications. Intraoperative image guidance is expected to have a major effect on procedures such as ESS by allowing the clinician to more efficiently remove pathology and by improving surgeon confidence and knowledge of anatomy, particularly in revision procedures or in patients with altered anatomy. As a consequence, complications during these procedures will decrease and patient safety will increase. Several guidance modalities are available including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRl), and fluoros-copy. This article will describe current applications of each of these three techniques with respect to ESS while focusing on innovative techniques that use MRI and CT to provide intraoperative guidance with unmatched convenience, reliability. and utility.
ASJC Scopus subject areas