To determine whether short-term storage and learning may be distinct processes, the input-output missing scan was used to evaluate short-term retention of input, output, and input-output repetitions by patients with and controls without cerebral disease. Subjects were required to report the four numbers missing from random sequences containing twelve of the numbers 1-16. Each seqeunce contained four input numbers said by E, four output numbers said by S, and four repetitions said by both E and S. When Ss report as missing numbers that did occur in a sequence, the relative frequency of such errors of commission shows the relative retention of input, output, and repetitions. The major finding is that patients with unselected cerebral disease may show differential impairment in learning repetitions without significant impairment in short-term storage of unrepeated input or output. This indicates that short-term storage and a distinct learning process, which may be differentially impaired, both contribute to short-term retention.
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