The parathyroid gland responds to decreases in levels of extracellular calcium by increasing the secretion of both PTH and chromogranin-A (CGA) in approximately equal molar ratios. Because CGA has been suggested to be a precursor for biologically active peptides, we used primary cultures of bovine parathyroid cells to examine the effects of various peptides from CGA as well as analogous peptides from chromogranin-B (CGB) on PTH secretion. In concentrations from 10-8-10-7 M, amino-terminal peptide CGA-(1-76) effectively inhibited the release of PTH in response to low extracellular calcium. Truncated analogs of this peptide, CGA-(1-40), CGB-(1-41), and CGA- (17-38) were also found to be active in the following order: CGA-(1-76) = CGA-(1-40) = CGB-(1-41) > CGA-(17-38). The biological activity of CGA-(1-40) was markedly reduced after reduction and alkylation, which resulted in disruption of the single disulfide bond between Cys17 and Cys38. Moreover, peptides derived from other regions of CGA and CGB, which included CGA-(403-428), CGB-(1-16), CGB-(316-326), and CGB-(635-657) were inactive. Pulse-chase experiments, using primary cultures of bovine parathyroid cells, revealed the presence of a CGA peptide in the culture medium that had the same amino-terminal sequence and mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gels as synthetic CGA-(1-76). Furthermore, in binding and cross-linking studies using intact parathyroid cells, CGA-(1-40) formed a single, covalently linked protein complex with a mol wt of 78,000. Formation of the protein complex could be completely inhibited in the presence of an excess of either CGB-(1-41) or CGA-(17-38). These results show that a naturally occurring amino-terminal peptide from CGA as well as shorter analogs can act as potent inhibitors of PTH secretion, and that their biological activity may be mediated through binding to a specific cell surface protein.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism