Any pathological perturbation to the brain provokes a cascade of molecular and cellular events, which manifests in the form of microglial activation and release of various proinflammatory molecules. This eventually culminates in a profound neuroinflammatory reaction that characterizes the brain's response to stress, injury, or infection. The inflammatory cascade is an attempt by the system to eliminate the challenge imposed on the brain, clear the system of the dead and damaged neurons, and rescue the normal functioning of this vital organ. However, during the process of microglial activation, the proinflammatory mediators released exert certain detrimental effects, and neural stem cells and progenitor cells are likely to be affected. Here we review how the proliferation, maturation, and migration of the neural stem cells are modulated under such an inflammatory condition. The fate of the noncommitted neural stem cells and its differentiation potency are often under strict regulation, and these proinflammatory mediators seem to disrupt this critical balance and finely tune the neurogenesis pattern in the two niches of neurogenesis, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. Moreover, the migration ability of these stem cells, which is important for localization to the proper site, is also affected in a major way by the chemokines released following inflammation.
- Neural stem/progenitor cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience