Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

Sara Salehi Hammerstad, Ronald Villanueva, Yaron Tomer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) remains unclear, but it is now generally believed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. Findings have begun to directly and indirectly implicate infectious agents in the pathogenesis of AITDs, and these data serve as the basis for this review. Classical AITD (i.e. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) have been shown to be associated with a variety of infectious agents. However, a causative role for infectious agents in AITD has not been definitively demonstrated in humans. Infectious agents may induce thyroid autoimmunity by a variety of diverse mechanisms, such as inducing modifications of self-antigens, mimicking self-molecules, altering the idiotypic network, forming immune complexes, and inducing expression of MHC molecules on thyroid epithelial cells. While indirect data suggesting the involvement of the infecting organisms in the pathogenesis of human AITD is abundant, only a limited number of studies have used direct approaches. It is this area of research where further studies are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInfection and Autoimmunity
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages891-918
Number of pages28
ISBN (Print)9780444632692
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Thyroid Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Infection
Hashimoto Disease
Graves Disease
Autoantigens
Antigen-Antibody Complex
Autoimmunity
Thyroid Gland
Research

Keywords

  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases
  • Autoimmunity
  • Epigenetics
  • Graves' disease
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  • Heat shock proteins
  • Infection
  • Molecular mimicry
  • Virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Hammerstad, S. S., Villanueva, R., & Tomer, Y. (2015). Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. In Infection and Autoimmunity (pp. 891-918). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63269-2.00048-9

Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. / Hammerstad, Sara Salehi; Villanueva, Ronald; Tomer, Yaron.

Infection and Autoimmunity. Elsevier Inc., 2015. p. 891-918.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Hammerstad, SS, Villanueva, R & Tomer, Y 2015, Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. in Infection and Autoimmunity. Elsevier Inc., pp. 891-918. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63269-2.00048-9
Hammerstad SS, Villanueva R, Tomer Y. Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. In Infection and Autoimmunity. Elsevier Inc. 2015. p. 891-918 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63269-2.00048-9
Hammerstad, Sara Salehi ; Villanueva, Ronald ; Tomer, Yaron. / Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. Infection and Autoimmunity. Elsevier Inc., 2015. pp. 891-918
@inbook{042238a87b764269a9be1b79843d2d2f,
title = "Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases",
abstract = "The etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) remains unclear, but it is now generally believed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. Findings have begun to directly and indirectly implicate infectious agents in the pathogenesis of AITDs, and these data serve as the basis for this review. Classical AITD (i.e. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) have been shown to be associated with a variety of infectious agents. However, a causative role for infectious agents in AITD has not been definitively demonstrated in humans. Infectious agents may induce thyroid autoimmunity by a variety of diverse mechanisms, such as inducing modifications of self-antigens, mimicking self-molecules, altering the idiotypic network, forming immune complexes, and inducing expression of MHC molecules on thyroid epithelial cells. While indirect data suggesting the involvement of the infecting organisms in the pathogenesis of human AITD is abundant, only a limited number of studies have used direct approaches. It is this area of research where further studies are needed.",
keywords = "Autoimmune thyroid diseases, Autoimmunity, Epigenetics, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Heat shock proteins, Infection, Molecular mimicry, Virus",
author = "Hammerstad, {Sara Salehi} and Ronald Villanueva and Yaron Tomer",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/B978-0-444-63269-2.00048-9",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780444632692",
pages = "891--918",
booktitle = "Infection and Autoimmunity",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

AU - Hammerstad, Sara Salehi

AU - Villanueva, Ronald

AU - Tomer, Yaron

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - The etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) remains unclear, but it is now generally believed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. Findings have begun to directly and indirectly implicate infectious agents in the pathogenesis of AITDs, and these data serve as the basis for this review. Classical AITD (i.e. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) have been shown to be associated with a variety of infectious agents. However, a causative role for infectious agents in AITD has not been definitively demonstrated in humans. Infectious agents may induce thyroid autoimmunity by a variety of diverse mechanisms, such as inducing modifications of self-antigens, mimicking self-molecules, altering the idiotypic network, forming immune complexes, and inducing expression of MHC molecules on thyroid epithelial cells. While indirect data suggesting the involvement of the infecting organisms in the pathogenesis of human AITD is abundant, only a limited number of studies have used direct approaches. It is this area of research where further studies are needed.

AB - The etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) remains unclear, but it is now generally believed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. Findings have begun to directly and indirectly implicate infectious agents in the pathogenesis of AITDs, and these data serve as the basis for this review. Classical AITD (i.e. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) have been shown to be associated with a variety of infectious agents. However, a causative role for infectious agents in AITD has not been definitively demonstrated in humans. Infectious agents may induce thyroid autoimmunity by a variety of diverse mechanisms, such as inducing modifications of self-antigens, mimicking self-molecules, altering the idiotypic network, forming immune complexes, and inducing expression of MHC molecules on thyroid epithelial cells. While indirect data suggesting the involvement of the infecting organisms in the pathogenesis of human AITD is abundant, only a limited number of studies have used direct approaches. It is this area of research where further studies are needed.

KW - Autoimmune thyroid diseases

KW - Autoimmunity

KW - Epigenetics

KW - Graves' disease

KW - Hashimoto's thyroiditis

KW - Heat shock proteins

KW - Infection

KW - Molecular mimicry

KW - Virus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072142236&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072142236&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/B978-0-444-63269-2.00048-9

DO - 10.1016/B978-0-444-63269-2.00048-9

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9780444632692

SP - 891

EP - 918

BT - Infection and Autoimmunity

PB - Elsevier Inc.

ER -