Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A descriptive study

Marcel Yotebieng, Jean L. Chalachala, Miriam Labbok, Frieda Behets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo.Methods: Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital.Results: All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included " heat" and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding.Conclusion: Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11
JournalInternational Breastfeeding Journal
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Breast Feeding
Human Milk
Water
Mothers
Ambulatory Care
Health Personnel
Milk
Health Facilities
Tea
Digestion
Primary Health Care
Hot Temperature
Economics

Keywords

  • Breastfeeding
  • DR Congo
  • Exclusive breastfeeding
  • Infant feeding practices
  • Kinshasa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo : A descriptive study. / Yotebieng, Marcel; Chalachala, Jean L.; Labbok, Miriam; Behets, Frieda.

In: International Breastfeeding Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, 11, 01.10.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c1f929d2624e461692b953ffe0bf49cf,
title = "Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A descriptive study",
abstract = "Background: Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65{\%} of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo.Methods: Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital.Results: All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39{\%}) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27{\%}), 12 (18{\%}), and 10 (15{\%}) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included {"} heat{"} and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding.Conclusion: Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.",
keywords = "Breastfeeding, DR Congo, Exclusive breastfeeding, Infant feeding practices, Kinshasa",
author = "Marcel Yotebieng and Chalachala, {Jean L.} and Miriam Labbok and Frieda Behets",
year = "2013",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1186/1746-4358-8-11",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
journal = "International Breastfeeding Journal",
issn = "1746-4358",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

T2 - A descriptive study

AU - Yotebieng, Marcel

AU - Chalachala, Jean L.

AU - Labbok, Miriam

AU - Behets, Frieda

PY - 2013/10/1

Y1 - 2013/10/1

N2 - Background: Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo.Methods: Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital.Results: All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included " heat" and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding.Conclusion: Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.

AB - Background: Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo.Methods: Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital.Results: All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included " heat" and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding.Conclusion: Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.

KW - Breastfeeding

KW - DR Congo

KW - Exclusive breastfeeding

KW - Infant feeding practices

KW - Kinshasa

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884812007&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84884812007&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1746-4358-8-11

DO - 10.1186/1746-4358-8-11

M3 - Article

C2 - 24083882

AN - SCOPUS:84884812007

VL - 8

JO - International Breastfeeding Journal

JF - International Breastfeeding Journal

SN - 1746-4358

IS - 1

M1 - 11

ER -