Background/purpose Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. Preliminary data derived from a human angiogenesis array in NB showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induced the secretion of several angiogenesis-related proteins including the important inflammatory factor chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of S1P-induced CCL2 expression in NB. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR and CCL2 ELISA were conducted to detect the mRNA expression and protein secretion of CCL2 in NB cells. Gain and loss of function studies were performed by using specific S1PR antagonists, adenoviral transduction and siRNA transfection. Macrophage F4/80 receptor in NB xenografts was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. Results S1P induced CCL2 mRNA expression and protein secretion in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in NB cells. Blockade of S1P2 signaling using the selective S1P2 antagonist JTE-013 inhibited S1P-induced CCL2 expression. Overexpression of S1P2 by adenoviral transduction increased CCL2 secretion while knockdown of S1P2 by siRNA transfection decreased S1P-induced CCL2 secretion in NB cells. Macrophage infiltration, as detected by F4/80 staining, was significantly decreased in JTE-013-treated NB xenografts. Conclusions Taken together, our data for the first time demonstrate that S1P induced the macrophage-recruiting factor CCL2 expression in NB cells via S1P2, providing new insights into the complicated functions of S1P2 in cancer.
- Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2
- Sphingosine 1-phosphate
- Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2
- Tumor-associated macrophage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health