Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust

Elizabeth M. Fireman, Yehuda Lerman, Eliezer Ganor, Joel Greif, Sharon Fireman-Shoresh, Paul J. Lioy, Gisela I. Banauch, Michael Weiden, Kerry J. Kelly, David J. Prezant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israel healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or ≥ 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1-50 μm; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1-10 μm; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1564-1569
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume112
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2004

Fingerprint

World Trade Center
Firefighters
Sputum
Dust
dust
Israel
Particle Size
Neutrophils
Particle size analysis
Particulate Matter
Eosinophils
particle size
health care
particulate matter
Inflammation
Delivery of Health Care
Tin
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Mercury

Keywords

  • Firefighters
  • Inflammation
  • Inhalation exposure
  • Particulates
  • Sputum
  • World Trade Center

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust. / Fireman, Elizabeth M.; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J.; Banauch, Gisela I.; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, No. 15, 11.2004, p. 1564-1569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fireman, EM, Lerman, Y, Ganor, E, Greif, J, Fireman-Shoresh, S, Lioy, PJ, Banauch, GI, Weiden, M, Kelly, KJ & Prezant, DJ 2004, 'Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust', Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 15, pp. 1564-1569. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7233
Fireman EM, Lerman Y, Ganor E, Greif J, Fireman-Shoresh S, Lioy PJ et al. Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004 Nov;112(15):1564-1569. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7233
Fireman, Elizabeth M. ; Lerman, Yehuda ; Ganor, Eliezer ; Greif, Joel ; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon ; Lioy, Paul J. ; Banauch, Gisela I. ; Weiden, Michael ; Kelly, Kerry J. ; Prezant, David J. / Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004 ; Vol. 112, No. 15. pp. 1564-1569.
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abstract = "New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israel healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or ≥ 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1-50 μm; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1-10 μm; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure.",
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