Background: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score are individually associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk but have not been studied in combination. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the independent and joint association of Lp(a) and CAC with ASCVD risk. Methods: Plasma Lp(a) and CAC were measured at enrollment among asymptomatic participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) (n = 4,512) and DHS (Dallas Heart Study) (n = 2,078) cohorts. Elevated Lp(a) was defined as the highest race-specific quintile, and 3 CAC score categories were studied (0, 1-99, and ≥100). Associations of Lp(a) and CAC with ASCVD risk were evaluated using risk factor–adjusted Cox regression models. Results: Among MESA participants (61.9 years of age, 52.5% women, 36.8% White, 29.3% Black, 22.2% Hispanic, and 11.7% Chinese), 476 incident ASCVD events were observed during 13.2 years of follow-up. Elevated Lp(a) and CAC score (1-99 and ≥100) were independently associated with ASCVD risk (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04-1.61; HR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.30-2.16; and HR: 2.66; 95% CI: 2.07-3.43, respectively), and Lp(a)-by-CAC interaction was not noted. Compared with participants with nonelevated Lp(a) and CAC = 0, those with elevated Lp(a) and CAC ≥100 were at the highest risk (HR: 4.71; 95% CI: 3.01-7.40), and those with elevated Lp(a) and CAC = 0 were at a similar risk (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.73-2.35). Similar findings were observed when guideline-recommended Lp(a) and CAC thresholds were considered, and findings were replicated in the DHS. Conclusions: Lp(a) and CAC are independently associated with ASCVD risk and may be useful concurrently for guiding primary prevention therapy decisions.
- atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
- coronary artery calcium
- primary cardiovascular disease prevention
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine