Increased ischemic complications in fenestrated and branched endovascular abdominal aortic repair compared with standard endovascular aortic repair

Gregory G. Westin, Caron B. Rockman, Mikel Sadek, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Matthew R. Cambria, Michele Silvestro, Karan Garg, Neal S. Cayne, Frank J. Veith, Thomas S. Maldonado

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Abstract

Objective: Ischemic complications (including in the lower extremity, visceral, spinal, and pelvic territories) following standard endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) are well recognized but fortunately uncommon. The incidence of such complications following fenestrated and branched aortic repair (F/BEVAR) has not been well defined in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of ischemic complications between EVAR and F/BEVAR and to elucidate potential risk factors for these complications. Methods: We identified all patients who underwent EVAR from 2003 to 2017 or F/BEVAR from 2012 to 2017 in the national Vascular Quality Initiative database. We assessed differences in perioperative ischemic outcomes with methods including logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment propensity score weighting, using a composite end point of lower extremity ischemia, intestinal ischemia, stroke, or new dialysis as the primary end point. Results: The data comprised 35,379 EVAR patients and 3374 F/BEVAR patients. F/BEVAR patients were more likely to be female, have had previous aneurysm repairs, and be deemed unfit for open aneurysm repair; they were less likely to have ruptured aneurysms; and they had higher estimated blood losses, contrast volumes, and fluoroscopy and procedure times. The incidence of any ischemic event (7.7% vs 2.2%) as well as the incidences of the component end points of lower extremity ischemia (2.3% vs 1.0%), intestinal ischemia (2.7% vs 0.7%), stroke (1.5% vs 0.3%), and new hemodialysis (3.1% vs 0.4%) were all significantly increased (all P <.001) in F/BEVAR compared with standard EVAR. After propensity adjustment, F/BEVAR conferred increased odds of any ischemic complication (1.8), intestinal ischemia (2.0), lower extremity ischemia (1.3), new hemodialysis (10.2), and stroke (2.3). Conclusions: Rates of lower extremity ischemia, intestinal ischemia, new dialysis, and stroke each range from 0% to 1% for standard EVAR and 1% to 3% for F/BEVAR. The incidence of perioperative ischemic complications following F/BEVAR is significantly increased compared to EVAR. The real-world data in this study should help guide decision-making for surgeons and patients as well as serve as one metric for progress in device and technique development. Improvements in ischemic complications may come from continued technology development such as smaller sheaths, improved imaging to decrease procedure time and contrast volume, embolic protection, and increased operator skill with wire and catheter manipulation

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-43
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Volume72
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • Branched EVAR
  • EVAR
  • Fenestrated EVAR
  • Ischemic complication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Westin, G. G., Rockman, C. B., Sadek, M., Ramkhelawon, B., Cambria, M. R., Silvestro, M., Garg, K., Cayne, N. S., Veith, F. J., & Maldonado, T. S. (2020). Increased ischemic complications in fenestrated and branched endovascular abdominal aortic repair compared with standard endovascular aortic repair. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 72(1), 36-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.09.044