Chemotherapy-related myeloid neoplasia (t-MN) is a significant late toxicity concern after cancer therapy. In the randomized intergroup phase 3 E2997 trial, initial therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (FC) compared with fludarabine alone yielded higher complete and overall response rates and longer progressionfree, but not overall, survival. Here, we report t-MN incidence in 278 patients enrolled in E2997 with a median 6.4-year follow-up. Thirteen cases (4.7%) of t-MN occurred at a median of 5 years from initial therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 9 after FC and 4 after fludarabine alone. By cumulative incidence methodology, rates of t-MN at 7 years were 8.2% after FC and 4.6% after fludarabine alone (P - .09). Seven of the 9 cases of t-MN after FC occurred without additional therapy. Abnormalities involving chromosomes 5 or 7 were found in 10 cases, which suggests alkylator involvement. These data suggest that FC may induce more t-MN than fludarabine alone.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology