Reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium is associated with a dramatic inflammatory response leading to TNF-α release, IL-6 induction, and subsequent neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic injury. Because inflammation is also an important factor in cardiac repair, we hypothesized the presence of components of the inflammatory reaction with a possible role in suppressing acute injury. Thus, we investigated the role of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine capable of modulating extracellular matrix biosynthesis, following an experimental canine myocardial infarction. Using our canine model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, we demonstrated significant up-regulation of IL-10 mRNA and protein in the ischemic and reperfused myocardium. IL-10 expression was first detected at 5 h and peaked following 96-120 h of reperfusion. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-13, also associated with suppression of acute inflammation and macrophage deactivation, were not expressed. In the ischemic canine heart, CD5-positive lymphocytes were the predominant source of IL-10 in the myocardial infarct. In the absence of reperfusion, no significant induction of IL-10 mRNA was noted. In addition, IL-12, a Th1-related cytokine associated with macrophage activation, was not detected in the ischemic myocardium. In vitro experiments demonstrated late postischemic cardiac-lymph-induced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 mRNA expression in isolated canine mononuclear cells. This effect was inhibited when the incubation contained a neutralizing Ab to IL-10. Our findings suggest that lymphocytes infiltrating the ischemic and reperfused myocardium express IL-10 and may have a significant role in healing by modulating mononuclear cell phenotype and inducing TIMP-1 expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy