Hypertension, thrombosis, kidney failure, and diabetes: Is covid-19 an endothelial disease? a comprehensive evaluation of clinical and basic evidence

Celestino Sardu, Jessica Gambardella, Marco Bruno Morelli, Xujun Wang, Raffaele Marfella, Gaetano Santulli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

200 Scopus citations

Abstract

The symptoms most commonly reported by patients affected by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) include cough, fever, and shortness of breath. However, other major events usually observed in COVID-19 patients (e.g., high blood pressure, arterial and venous thromboembolism, kidney disease, neurologic disorders, and diabetes mellitus) indicate that the virus is targeting the endothelium, one of the largest organs in the human body. Herein, we report a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of both clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that the endothelium is a key target organ in COVID-19, providing a mechanistic rationale behind its systemic manifestations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1417
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2020

Keywords

  • ACE2
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Blood pressure
  • COVID
  • Catepsin
  • Coronavirus
  • Cytokine storm
  • Endothelium
  • Heparin
  • Kawasaki disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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