Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a structurally complex enveloped dsDNA virus that has evolved to replicate in human neurons and epithelia. Viral gene expression, DNA replication, capsid assembly, and genome packaging take place in the infected cell nucleus, which mature nucleocapsids exit by envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane then de-envelopment into the cytoplasm. Once in the cytoplasm, capsids travel along microtubules to reach, dock, and envelope at cytoplasmic organelles. This generates mature infectious HSV-1 particles that must then be sorted to the termini of sensory neurons, or to epithelial cell junctions, for spread to uninfected cells. The focus of this review is upon our current understanding of the viral and cellular molecular machinery that enables HSV-1 to travel within infected cells during egress and to manipulate cellular organelles to construct its envelope.
- Herpes simplex virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry