How Curcumin Targets Inflammatory Mediators in Diabetes: Therapeutic Insights and Possible Solutions

Yaseen Hussain, Haroon Khan, Ghallab Alotaibi, Fazlullah Khan, Waqas Alam, Michael Aschner, Philippe Jeandet, Luciano Saso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial chronic metabolic disorder, characterized by altered metabolism of macro-nutrients, such as fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Diabetic retinopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic encephalopathy, diabetic periodontitis, and diabetic nephropathy are the prominent complications of diabetes. Inflammatory mediators are primarily responsible for these complications. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, is well known for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. The regulation of several signaling pathways effectively targets inflammatory mediators in diabetes. Curcumin’s anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities against a wide range of molecular targets have been shown to have therapeutic potential for a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders, including diabetes. Curcumin’s biological examination has shown that it is a powerful anti-oxidant that stops cells from growing by releasing active free thiol groups at the target location. Curcumin is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent that targets inflammatory mediators in diabetes, and its resistant form leads to better therapeutic outcomes in diabetes complications. Moreover, Curcumin is an anti-oxidant and NF-B inhibitor that may be useful in treating diabetes. Curcumin has been shown to inhibit diabetes-related enzymes, such as a-glucosidase, aldose reductase and aldose reductase inhibitors. Through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and its suppression of vascular endothelial development and nuclear transcription factors, curcumin has the ability to prevent, or reduce, the course of diabetic retinopathy. Curcumin improves insulin sensitivity by suppressing phosphorylation of ERK/JNK in HG-induced insulin-resistant cells and strengthening the PI3K-AKT-GSK3B signaling pathway. In the present article, we aimed to discuss the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of curcumin in diabetes regulated by various molecular signaling pathways.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4058
JournalMolecules
Volume27
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

Keywords

  • curcumin
  • diabetes mellitus
  • diabetes resistance
  • inflammatory mediators
  • late complications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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