To investigate the mechanism of HIV-1-induced hematopoietic abnormalities, we examined the effect of HIV-1 infection on the in vitro and in vivo behavior of precursor cells obtained from human fetal bone marrow (HFBM). After infection with the monocyte-tropic isolate HIV-1(ADA), HFBM cells displayed a significant decrease in their subsequent in vitro production of precursor cell colonies and a marked impairment in their engraftment of the bone marrow of irradiated SCID mice. By injecting retrovitally tagged, purified human CD34+ cells into HIV-1(ADA)-infected or uninfected human thymic tissue implanted in SCID mice, we demonstrated that HIV-1 infection also inhibited the in vivo differentiation of CD34+ cells into T cells. To determine the mechanism by which HIV-1 suppressed hematopoietic activity, we investigated whether HIV-1 infection induced apoptotic cell death in hematopoietic cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide demonstrated that infection of the HFBM with monocyte-tropic, but not T cell line-tropic HIV-1, stimulated apoptosis in the CD34+ hematopoietic precursor population. The presence of a TNF-α inhibitor during exposure of the HFBM cells to HIV-1 substantially reduced the level of apoptosis of CD34+ cells and significantly decreased the repression of in vitro colony formation induced by HIV-1. However, inhibition of TNF-α during HFBM cell culture with HIV-1 did not restore their capacity to engraft SCID mice. Taken together, these results indicated that HIV-1 suppression of human hematopoietic cell maturation is a multifactoral phenomenon, a crucial element of which may be HIV-1-induced apoptosis of precursor cells mediated by TNF-α production.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases