HIV infection in adolescents continues to challenge health providers, policymakers, and advocates for youth. There will be no relief from its complexities soon. Primary care providers are in a unique position to use effective HIV prevention and care interventions. Successful programs move beyond moralism to realism. They show a willingness to engage young people and their families in a sensitive dialogue about the needs of youthful sexual development. Youth at high risk for HIV should be identified and referred to comprehensive care and counseling as soon as possible. HIV-positive youth need intensive individual and group interventions to remain healthy and reduce transmission to others. To protect their patient population, health care providers will need to commit time and effort to making adolescents services visible, flexible, affordable, confidential, culturally appropriate, and universally available.
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