In contrast to the uncertainty about the prevalence and importance of late-life depressive disorders, a consistent pattern of risk factors for depressive symptoms has been shown by studies using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The authors surveyed a representative sample of 2,137 elderly community residents with the CES-D and found a hierarchy of characteristics associated with substantial levels of depressive symptoms: illness, disability, isolation, bereavement, and poverty. If these findings are confirmed by prospective studies, addressing modifiable factors in the emergence, persistence, and remission of depressive symptoms might extend the independent survival of older adults.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health