Mammalian prosomatostatin (PSS) is cleaved at a dibasic Arg-Lys site to produce somatostatin-14 (SS-14) and at monobasic Arg and Lys sites to yield SS-28 and PSS((1-10)) (antrin), respectively. Furin, PC1, and PC2 are three recently discovered mammalian endoproteases localized either to the constitutive (furin) or regulated (PC1, PC2) secretory pathways. In this study we have compared the heterologous processing of PSS in transiently transfected endocrine (AtT-20 pituitary) and nonendocrine (COS-7 monkey kidney, PC12 pheochromocytoma) tumor cells. We have correlated the efficiency of processing of PSS to SS-14, SS-28, and PSS((1-10)) with (i) secretion through the constitutive or regulated pathways; (ii) endogenous expression of mRNA for furin, PC1, and PC2; and (iii) exogenous expression of PC1 and PC2 in cells that do not contain these enzymes in order to delineate the putative role of these enzymes in mediating PSS cleavage at dibasic and monobasic sites and to localize the proteolytic events to specific compartments of the secretory pathways. COS-7 and PC12 cells expressed only furin, secreted constitutively, and processed PSS preferentially at monobasic sites to SS-28 (40-43%) and antrin (27-29%). Processing, however, was inefficient as suggested by large amounts of unprocessed PSS. In contrast, AtT-20 cells showed regulated secretion, expressed all three endoproteases (with high levels of PC1), and processed PSS efficiently to mainly SS-14. PC1, but not PC2, exogenously coexpressed with PSS in COS-7 cells produced significant conversion to SS-14 but not SS-28. This study shows that PSS is capable of monobasic cleavage in the constitutive secretory pathway. Such processing could be mediated by a furin-like enzyme but is relatively inefficient. PC1 can effect dibasic cleavage of PSS whereas PC2 is without influence on PSS processing at least within the constitutive secretory pathway. Although monobasic and dibasic processing of PSS in COS-7 cells correlates with furin- like and PC1 activity, respectively, the relative inefficiency of such processing suggests that compartmentalization of proteolytic events in secretory vesicles or other more specific endoproteases may be required.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology