Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis and end-stage liver disease worldwide. Untreated, chronic hepatitis B acquired early in life results in cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma in up to 40% of individuals. Until recently, the options for a patient who had end-stage hepatitis B cirrhosis were severely limited, but during the past 15 years great strides have been made in prevention and treatment of hepatitis B cirrhosis. This article reviews recent advances in the understanding of the natural history, prevention, and medical management of HBV-related end-stage liver disease.
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