INTRODUCTION: The growing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic initially led to widespread use of hydroxychloroquine sulfate as an off-label experimental treatment of this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: Acute hemolytic anemia developed in an African American man with COVID-19-related pneumonia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency who completed the standard 5-day experimental course of hydroxychloroquine. Although the trigger leading to our patient's hemolytic sequelae will never be known with certainty, his clinical course suggests that hydroxychloroquine use and/or COVID-19 infection may trigger hemolysis in susceptible patients with G6PD deficiency. DISCUSSION: This case confirms recent findings that the potential risks of hydroxychloroquine therapy for COVID-19 may outweigh the benefits.
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