It is now clear that cytokines traditionally viewed as immune modulators participate in inflammatory responses within the adult nervous system. However, in the developing nervous system hematolymphopoietic cytokines also play a role unrelated to neural-immune interactions. Instead, many of these factors subserve primary regulatory functions related both to the morphogenesis and to the cellular maturation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. This article focuses specifically on cytokine actions in neural development.
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