Heart failure (HF) has steadily increased in prevalence and affects both males and females equally. Despite this, there has been a significant underrepresentation of women in large scale HF trials. This disparity has lead to a deficit in understanding important gender-based differences in pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies. We review these gaps and explore a biological basis for varying outcomes. Endogenous estrogen plays an important role in epidemiology and outcome. The administration of exogenous estrogen has had varied success in treatment and is outlined extensively below. Additionally, we highlight unique HF syndromes through pregnancy and important sex-specific issues concerning transplant and mechanical circulatory support. A central theme remains: there is a clear need for increased female recruitment in clinical trials, and more studies exploring the role of gender-based biology in HF treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine