Healthy dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease in US Hispanics/Latinos: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Yi Yun Chen, Guo Chong Chen, Nathaniel Abittan, Jiaqian Xing, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Josiemer Mattei, Martha Daviglus, Carmen R. Isasi, Frank B. Hu, Robert Kaplan, Qibin Qi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Multiple dietary patterns have been recommended by the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The adherence to these patterns and its relation with risk of CVD remain unclear in the US Hispanic/Latino population. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate 3 healthy eating patterns measured by 3 dietary pattern scores [the Alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015, and the healthful Plant-based Diet Index (hPDI)] across different Hispanic/Latino backgrounds and generations. We further examined the associations of these dietary scores with incident CVD in US Hispanics/Latinos. Methods: We included 10,293 adult participants of US Hispanics/Latinos of 6 backgrounds (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central American, and South American), free of CVD or cancer at baseline, in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Dietary pattern scores were derived at the baseline visit using two 24-h dietary recalls. The primary outcome was major incident CVD (n = 232), comprised of coronary heart disease and stroke, during an average 6-y follow-up. Results: Mean levels of all 3 dietary scores were significantly different across the 6 Hispanic/Latino background groups (all P < 0.001), with the highest (i.e., healthiest) in those of Mexican background and lowest in those of Puerto Rican background. Compared with non-mainland-US-born Hispanics/Latinos, mainland-US-born Hispanics/Latinos had significantly lower dietary scores (P < 0.001). Differences in dietary scores between mainland-US-born and non-mainland-US-born Hispanics/Latinos were majorly driven by differences in dietary intakes of healthy plant-based foods. After adjusting for multiple covariates, significantly lower risk ratios (95% CI) of CVD were observed for 1-SD increments of the dietary scores, with 0.74 (0.60, 0.91) for aMED, 0.80 (0.63, 1.00) for HEI-2015, and 0.74 (0.60, 0.93) for hPDI. Conclusions: Although adherence to healthy eating patterns varied by Hispanic/Latino backgrounds and generations, greater adherence to these eating patterns was associated with lower risk of CVD across diverse US Hispanics/Latinos.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)920-927
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume116
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022

Keywords

  • US Hispanics/Latinos
  • cardiovascular disease
  • dietary guidelines
  • dietary patterns
  • immigrant generations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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