Phase II detoxification of carcinogens is reported to mediate some of the anticarcinogenesis effects of candidate chemopreventive agents. We explored the interaction between sequence variation in the GSTP1 gene promoter and candidate chemopreventive exposure in regulating human GSTP1 expression. Polymorphisms along 1.8 kb of the GSTP1 promoter were identified in leukocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] from 40 Caucasian subjects. Ten promoter polymorphisms (9 previously unreported) displayed strong linkage disequilibrium, yielding identification of three frequently observed haplotypes [HAP1 (43%), HAP2 (36%), and HAP3 (8%)]. Each haplotype was cloned into luciferase reporter constructs and transfected into normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Basal HAP3 reporter activity was significantly elevated (1.8-fold) but decreased to the same levels as HAP2 and HAP1 with increasing concentrations of sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). To confirm native HAP3 functionality, we quantitated mRNA expression in uncultured PBMCs and in laser microdissected normal lung epithelial cells (MNLEC) from the same patients. Basal mRNA expression was higher in HAP3 individuals [1.8-fold (PBMC) and 4-fold (MNLEC) for HAP3 heterozygotes and 2.3-fold (PBMC), and 15-fold (MNLEC) for the HAP3 homozygote] than in the other genotypes. PBMC GSTP1 mRNA expression correlated to MNLEC expression (R2 = 0.77). After culture and in vitro exposure to sulforaphane, BITC, or EGCG, the elevated GSTP1 mRNA expression of PBMCs from HAP3 individuals decreased to common expression levels. Elevated HAP3 function was confirmed at the protein level in PBMCs (5-fold higher for HAP3 heterozygotes and 7.6-fold for the HAP3 homozygote). These data suggest a potentially protective GSTP1 promoter haplotype and unpredicted inhibitory chemopreventive agent-haplotype interactions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research