Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous intestinal peptide that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Its natural cleavage product GLP-1(9-36)amide possesses distinct properties and does not affect insulin secretion. Here we report that pretreatment of hippocampal slices with GLP-1(9-36)amide prevented impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long-term depression induced by exogenous amyloid β peptide Aβ(1-42). Similarly, hippocampal LTP impairments in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mutant mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD) were prevented by GLP-1(9-36)amide. In addition, treatment of APP/PS1 mice with GLP-1(9-36)amide at an age at which they display impaired spatial and contextual fear memory resulted in a reversal of their memory defects. At the molecular level, GLP-1(9-36)amide reduced elevated levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and restored dysregulated Aktglycogen synthase kinase-3β signaling in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Our findings suggest that GLP-1(9-36)amide treatment may have therapeutic potential for AD and other diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction.
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