Genetics and epigenetics of autoimmune thyroid diseases: Translational implications

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are prevalent autoimmune disorders, representing opposite ends of the clinical spectrum of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). The pathogenesis involves a complex interplay between environment and genes. Specific susceptibility genes have been discovered that predispose to AITD, including thyroid-specific and immune-regulatory genes. Growing evidence has revealed that genetic and epigenetic variants can alter autoantigen presentation during the development of immune tolerance, can enhance self-peptide binding to MHC (major histocompatibility complex), and can amplify stimulation of T- and B-cells. These gene-driven mechanistic discoveries lay the groundwork for novel treatment targets. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of key AITD susceptibility genes (Tg1, TSHR, HLA-DR3, and CD40) and their translational therapeutic potential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101661
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • CD40
  • HLA
  • TSHR
  • autoimmune thyroid disease
  • genes
  • thyroglobulin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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