Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease: past, present, and future.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

131 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), including Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, arise due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. There are sound data coming from epidemiological, family, and twin studies demonstrating a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. In this review we summarize the new findings on the genetic susceptibility to AITD focusing on emerging mechanisms of susceptibility. SUMMARY: Candidate gene analysis, whole-genome linkage screening, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome sequencing are the major technologies that have advanced this field, leading to the identification of at least seven genes whose variants have been associated with AITD. One of the major ones is the HLA-DR gene locus. Recently, it was shown that substitution of the neutral amino acids Ala or Gln with arginine at position beta 74 in the HLA-DR peptide-binding pocket is key to the etiology of both Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several other genes have also been shown to confer susceptibility to AITD. These can be classified into two groups: (i) immune regulatory genes (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CD40, protein tyrosine phosphatase-22, and CD25) and (ii) thyroid-specific genes (thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor genes). The influence of individual genes on the development of AITD when assessed in a population appears to be weaker than would be expected from the data showing strong genetic susceptibility to AITD. Two possible mechanisms explaining this discrepancy are gene-gene interactions and subset effects. CONCLUSIONS: Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the immunogenetic mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity. For the first time we are beginning to unravel these mechanisms at the molecular level. It is hoped that these new data will be translated into novel therapies and prevention strategies in AITD, such as costimulatory blockade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-725
Number of pages11
JournalThyroid
Volume20
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2010

Fingerprint

Thyroid Diseases
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Autoimmune Diseases
Genes
Hashimoto Disease
Graves Disease
HLA-DR Antigens
Thyroid Gland
Genome
Neutral Amino Acids
Immunogenetics
Thyrotropin Receptors
Twin Studies
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genetic Association Studies
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
Regulator Genes
Autoimmunity
Arginine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease : past, present, and future. / Tomer, Yaron.

In: Thyroid, Vol. 20, No. 7, 07.2010, p. 715-725.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{9d411f09376445b4816fba5af3daab4a,
title = "Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease: past, present, and future.",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), including Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, arise due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. There are sound data coming from epidemiological, family, and twin studies demonstrating a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. In this review we summarize the new findings on the genetic susceptibility to AITD focusing on emerging mechanisms of susceptibility. SUMMARY: Candidate gene analysis, whole-genome linkage screening, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome sequencing are the major technologies that have advanced this field, leading to the identification of at least seven genes whose variants have been associated with AITD. One of the major ones is the HLA-DR gene locus. Recently, it was shown that substitution of the neutral amino acids Ala or Gln with arginine at position beta 74 in the HLA-DR peptide-binding pocket is key to the etiology of both Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several other genes have also been shown to confer susceptibility to AITD. These can be classified into two groups: (i) immune regulatory genes (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CD40, protein tyrosine phosphatase-22, and CD25) and (ii) thyroid-specific genes (thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor genes). The influence of individual genes on the development of AITD when assessed in a population appears to be weaker than would be expected from the data showing strong genetic susceptibility to AITD. Two possible mechanisms explaining this discrepancy are gene-gene interactions and subset effects. CONCLUSIONS: Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the immunogenetic mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity. For the first time we are beginning to unravel these mechanisms at the molecular level. It is hoped that these new data will be translated into novel therapies and prevention strategies in AITD, such as costimulatory blockade.",
author = "Yaron Tomer",
year = "2010",
month = "7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "20",
pages = "715--725",
journal = "Thyroid",
issn = "1050-7256",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease

T2 - past, present, and future.

AU - Tomer, Yaron

PY - 2010/7

Y1 - 2010/7

N2 - BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), including Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, arise due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. There are sound data coming from epidemiological, family, and twin studies demonstrating a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. In this review we summarize the new findings on the genetic susceptibility to AITD focusing on emerging mechanisms of susceptibility. SUMMARY: Candidate gene analysis, whole-genome linkage screening, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome sequencing are the major technologies that have advanced this field, leading to the identification of at least seven genes whose variants have been associated with AITD. One of the major ones is the HLA-DR gene locus. Recently, it was shown that substitution of the neutral amino acids Ala or Gln with arginine at position beta 74 in the HLA-DR peptide-binding pocket is key to the etiology of both Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several other genes have also been shown to confer susceptibility to AITD. These can be classified into two groups: (i) immune regulatory genes (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CD40, protein tyrosine phosphatase-22, and CD25) and (ii) thyroid-specific genes (thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor genes). The influence of individual genes on the development of AITD when assessed in a population appears to be weaker than would be expected from the data showing strong genetic susceptibility to AITD. Two possible mechanisms explaining this discrepancy are gene-gene interactions and subset effects. CONCLUSIONS: Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the immunogenetic mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity. For the first time we are beginning to unravel these mechanisms at the molecular level. It is hoped that these new data will be translated into novel therapies and prevention strategies in AITD, such as costimulatory blockade.

AB - BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), including Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, arise due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. There are sound data coming from epidemiological, family, and twin studies demonstrating a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. In this review we summarize the new findings on the genetic susceptibility to AITD focusing on emerging mechanisms of susceptibility. SUMMARY: Candidate gene analysis, whole-genome linkage screening, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome sequencing are the major technologies that have advanced this field, leading to the identification of at least seven genes whose variants have been associated with AITD. One of the major ones is the HLA-DR gene locus. Recently, it was shown that substitution of the neutral amino acids Ala or Gln with arginine at position beta 74 in the HLA-DR peptide-binding pocket is key to the etiology of both Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several other genes have also been shown to confer susceptibility to AITD. These can be classified into two groups: (i) immune regulatory genes (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CD40, protein tyrosine phosphatase-22, and CD25) and (ii) thyroid-specific genes (thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor genes). The influence of individual genes on the development of AITD when assessed in a population appears to be weaker than would be expected from the data showing strong genetic susceptibility to AITD. Two possible mechanisms explaining this discrepancy are gene-gene interactions and subset effects. CONCLUSIONS: Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the immunogenetic mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity. For the first time we are beginning to unravel these mechanisms at the molecular level. It is hoped that these new data will be translated into novel therapies and prevention strategies in AITD, such as costimulatory blockade.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78349272440&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78349272440&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 20604685

AN - SCOPUS:78349272440

VL - 20

SP - 715

EP - 725

JO - Thyroid

JF - Thyroid

SN - 1050-7256

IS - 7

ER -