Objective: To review the classification of fungal sinusitis as well as discuss current approaches to diagnosis and management. Data Sources: A MEDLINE literature search was performed using the index terms sinus infection, fungal, diagnosis, radiology, microbiology, and treatment. The search was restricted to the English language and human subjects. With one exception the references were restricted to the last 10 years. Clinical data from studies performed at our institution were also included. Results: Fungal sinusitis can be divided into four primary categories: (1) acute/fulminant (invasive), (2) chronic/indolent (invasive), (3) fungus ball, and (4) allergic fungal sinusitis. Each subtype has unique immunologic, pathologic, and clinical features. Allergic fungal sinusitis is the most recently described and most common form. The treatment and prognosis of fungal sinusitis varies significantly among the four different categories. Conclusion: Recent advances in endoscopy and computed tomography have enhanced the understanding of fungal sinusitis; however, they remain diseases surrounded by controversy. New insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases along with advances in diagnosis and treatment will lead to improved medical therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine