Cytochrome c folding was initiated using a new solution mixer that provides a time window which covers over 90% of the burst phase unresolved by conventional stop-flow measurements. Folding was followed by resonance Raman scattering. Kinetic analysis of the high frequency Raman data indicates that a nascent phase occurs within the mixing dead time of 100 μs. A significant fraction of the protein was found to be trapped in a misfolded bis-histidine form during the nascent phase at pH 4.5, thereby preventing the protein from folding rapidly and homogeneously. The nascent phase was followed by a haem- ligand exchange phase that populates the native histidine-methionine coordinated form through a thermodynamically controlled equilibrium.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Structural Biology