Translation is the fundamental biological process that converts the genetic information in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into functional proteins. Translation regulation allows cells to control when, where, and how many proteins are synthesized. Much of what we know about translation comes from ensemble approaches that measure the average of many cells. The cellular and molecular heterogeneity in the regulation of translation remains largely elusive. Fluorescence microscopy allows interrogation of biological problems with single-molecule, single-cell sensitivity. In recent years, improved design of reagents and microscopy tools has led to improved spatial and temporal resolution of translation imaging. It is now possible to track global translation in specific subcellular compartments and follow the translation dynamics of single transcripts. Highlighted here is the recent progress in translation imaging with emphasis on in vivo translation dynamics. These tools will be invaluable to the study of translation regulation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)