Management of coronary artery disease (CAD) has evolved over the past decade, but there are few prospective studies evaluating long-term outcomes in a real-world setting of evolving technical approaches and secondary prevention. The aim of this study was to determine how the mortality and morbidity of CAD has changed in patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in the setting of co-morbidities and evolving management. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry was a cohort study of patients undergoing PCI at various time points. Cohorts were enrolled in 1999 (cohort 2, n = 2,105), 2004 (cohort 4, n = 2,112), and 2006 (cohort 5, n = 2,176), and each was followed out to 5 years. Primary outcomes were death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass grafting, repeat PCI, and repeat revascularization. Secondary outcomes were PCI for new obstructive lesions at 5 years, 5-year rates of death and MI stratified by the severity of coronary artery and co-morbid disease. Over time, patients were more likely to have multiple co-morbidities and more severe CAD. Despite greater disease severity, there was no significant difference in death (16.5% vs 17.6%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74 to 1.08), MI (11.0% vs 10.6%, adjusted HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.08), or repeat PCI (20.4% vs 22.2%, adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.17) at 5-year follow-up, but there was a significant decrease in coronary artery bypass grafting (9.1% vs 4.3%, adjusted HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.59). Patients with 5 co-morbidities had a 40% to 60% death rate at 5 years. There was a modestly high rate of repeat PCI for new lesions, indicating a potential failure of secondary prevention for this population in the face of increasing co-morbidity. Overall 5-year rates of death, MI, repeat PCI, and repeat PCI for new lesions did not change significantly in the context of increased co-morbidities and complex disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine